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tv   Focus on Europe  PBS  February 2, 2015 6:30pm-7:01pm PST

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>> hello and welcome to "focus on europe are co-great you could join us today. on today's program, we're looking at all the stories shaping the lives of europeans all over the continent. the islamist of denmark -- jail or jihad. young people of greece -- coping with the crisis. living near auschwitz -- coping with history. what can be done about islamist extremists returning to europe after fighting in syria or iraq
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accra that's the question plaguing europe since the terror attacks in france early this month. some country calls are for tougher punishments, such as jail sentences for jihadist fighters, but in denmark, authorities are offering a different approach -- programs to reintegrate former islamist into society. it's clearly a radical proposition, especially considering that it was in denmark a decade ago that cartoonists were first written wth death -- threatened with death for depicting the prophet mohammed. we speak with a cartoonist who survived numerous assassination attempt, including one for years ago when a man broke into his house wielding an ax and a knife. >> the building where this newspaper is published resembles a fortress. editors have been receiving death threats for years. these days, police patrol in
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front of its branch office in copenhagen. since the attack in paris, the paper is considered at risk. the paper published cartoons of mohammed in september 2005. violent protests against danish institutions broke out a few months later across the muslim world. charlie hebdo reprinted the cartoons in a show of solidarity. one cartoonists was a primary target of the haters. today, anyone wanting to visit him his first searched. the artist has lived in relative isolation with police protection for eight years. >> have experienced an attack myself. still, i ask myself how can what has just happened still go on.
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>> denmark second largest city is a university town with a large muslim community. in recent months, about 30 radicalized islamists have left to fight for the islamic state and iraq. danish fighters shoot at potos of danish politicians. some fighters have returned to denmark. authorities have announced a reintegration program for fighters. one psychologist wants to turn them back into good danish citizens. i want to help the young man -- young men integrate themselves back into society.
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>> the returnees are offered therapy to work through their brutal experiences in syria and iraq. if they take part, the police take less interest in them. 10 former i.s. fighters are taking part in the program. med -- ahmed, who prefers not to show himself on camera, knows them from the mosque. >> am a muslim, and that makes it my duty to help my brothers. >> he tells the danish television journalist that he, too, wants to fight. the mosque is a meeting place of radical muslims. many of the i.s. fighters are members of the congregation. its chairman supports the reintegration program, but he also calls for the establishment of a caliphate like the islamic state. he makes no attempt to persuade his co-religionists not to fight for i.s. in syria and iraq.
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>> if young danish muslims decide to do this, that's their business. we live in a free country where you can do what you want. >> that's why many people say the preachers taking part in the program solely for tactical reasons, to protect islamists from police investigations, but he thinks the project makes sense. >> there's a saying -- it's true but a bit obscene -- democracy goes to bed even with its foes, not out of desire but on principle. so i support measures like this program because it sheds light on the issue. >> he says the muslims in denmark should rise to the challenge. >> what i miss at the moment is major demonstrations by muslims who take to the streets in
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support of freedom of opinion, tolerance, and democracy. >> it's time for muslims who do not need a reintegration program to speak out, he says. >> the vast majority of muslims in europe are not islamist extremists, but as far as dealing with returning jihadist fighters goes, it's difficult to know what the correct solution is -- prison or reintegration. let me know what you think. now to greece were parliamentary elections are being held. the vote is being closely watched and the rest of europe, mainly because the radical left-wing party is tipped to win. they want to renegotiate greek bailout terms, but critics say that would create a whole new crisis for the eurozone. greece has been struggling for five years, which means the whole generation has come of age knowing only a country in economic freefall. today, more than half of under
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25 year old greeks are out of work, but some young people are determined to succeed. >> she's responsible for gathering together ingredients before classes begin. the 20 year old wants to become a chef and started attending this vocational school in athens last year, but our restaurants a secure place to work in times of crisis? the young greek woman is taking a strategic approach. >> our food is a great asset for marketing our country. we have such great food that it's definitely a huge resource when it comes to dealing with tourists, when it comes to boosting our economy. it's something greece should remote because we have food. it's just up to us to promote it in the right way. >> but first, the root and vegetables need to be peeled. -- the fruit and vegetables need to be peeled. before the euro crisis in 2010, american school in athens.
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then her family lost their money, and she was forced to give up her highflying clans of an international career. nowadays, the beginnings of the euro crisis seem like a bad dream. >> we were all worried. we did not know what was going on. we could not understand because we were very young, so we were very uncertain. i remember money was less, definitely. we could tell because we had more allowance and everything. a lot of kids started to go out and work. i did, too. i got my first job when i was 15. such things did not happen in greece. these phenomena were new. >> she has gotten used to the new greece. it's a poor country that has little in common with the land her parents grew up in. >> i miss the fact that i did not grow up in all this wealth and having a good time all the time, but in essence, i understand now that what they did was take -- fake.
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it was not real. it was sort of like they lived a dream from which they woke up, and i think it's harder to get used to the things now if you lived back then. for me, it's easier because i grew up this way. >> home life has changed, too. she lives with her mother now. her parents got divorced. her mother works for the embassy and is also a chef. she says it's a hard job, not one she necessarily would want for her daughter. at the same time, she is also proud of her daughter. >> of course my daughter does not have the same kind of opportunities that we had before the crisis, but is that really so awful? if she had things as easy as i did when i was 20, she and her generation might make exactly the a mistakes as we did back then. >> she hopes that the younger
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generation will be able to fundamentally change greece for the better. >> ventures -- this generation is being forced to see the world more realistically. maybe that is why they are prepared to take steps that my generation are not courageous enough to take. >> that includes not taking things at face value. in that spirit, joanna is doing a correspondence course in statistics. the 20-year-old says he gives can tell you a lot, but also conceal things. >> whenever you have such a huge crisis in a country, your suicide rates go up. in greece, so far, no one has ever mentioned suicide rates in greece. using the metro every day, we hear a lot of stories about suicides that happen, but no one talks about. >> on her journey to school each
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day, she can see how much her home city, athens, is suffering from the ongoing crisis. there are no quick solutions for unemployment and economic decline. yet, this first-time voter hopes the opposition movement will be able to change things for the better. >> i think it's anyone knew. we want new people, younger people on the political scene. we want to see something different. it does not matter now if it is left or right, ideologically. it's just a friend. we want something different. >> greece's future is also a frequent topic of conversation at school. she has to pay for her vocational training and wants to be sure she is making the right investment. >> it could take another 10 years before our labor market is back to normal. young people are not patient.
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they have their lives in front of them. i don't blame them for that. >> she does not want to wait 10 years. in the evening, she works as a waitress in this cocktail bar to pay for her cause. this young woman is certainly doing her bit for her own and for greece's future. >> in theory, in ukraine, there is a truce, the death toll keeps on rising, making the cease-fire more or less worthless. not only have peace talks stalled, more fighters are moving into eastern ukraine. kiev is sending more troops into the fight, and on the other hand, more separatist fighters are reportedly flooding and over the border from russia. since the conflict broke out last april, around 5000 people have been killed, but for local people in the region, the conflict is turning into a humanitarian crisis. as our reporter found out and
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she visited the front on both sides. >> she sings for her soldiers and four ukraine. in a cafe in kiev, she has organized a campaign to collect donations for the ukrainian military where the state is too weak, volunteers leap into the breach. she says that help is fast and comes from their hearts and the due nations do not trickle away in the corrupt bureaucracy. she demonstrated in kiev's central square a year ago. >> we bought all of his equipment when he wanted to join the army. now we've expanded our work and take care of his entire regiment. >> the soldiers depend on private deliveries for their supplies. we drive with her overnight to maria poll. without volunteers, many
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soldiers on the front would have nothing to eat, nothing to drink, and no warm clothing. she is reunited with the 23 year old student she met at the demonstrations. the age shipment is unpacked. fruit, christmas cookies, munitions, equipment, a stove, a television set, cigarettes, medicines. the 54th brigade is happy to see these supplies. the soldiers have set up camp on an old farm. artillery can be heard in the distance. she has brought along a ukrainian flag and asks the soldiers to write messages on it. she plans to auction it off and use the proceeds for more aid. every one of our hearts is a weapon, sings the soldier. as the ukrainians see it, this
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war was forced on tem. they say they will man the front as long as they can resist the russian aggression. so what about the cease-fire? >> i don't believe the minsk agreement at all. the war will not be over as soon as we would like because it is useful for both sides. they are shooting every day. wounded soldiers every day. and we are not quiet, either. >> some of the soldiers went for training to the battalion of the right wing extremist group. they offer better training than can be had elsewhere. >> i'm a democrat by nature. what i like is their patriotism, their love of country. i knew that this organization had taken part in wars against
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russia before and has experience in fighting the russians. >> time to see things from the other side. we have to say goodbye to the ukrainian television crew and continue on with a german team. we drive on icy roads far to the east to luhansk just a few kilometers from the russian border. we cross so many checkpoints we stopped counting. it's 26 degrees below zero celsius. this is what remains of luhansk airport. in september, insurgents fighting for what they call new pressure retook it from the ukrainian troops. minesweepers are busy.
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we asked one of the soldiers who fought here why these grounds are so important. >> we want to rebuild the airport, of course. we have to. we have big lands and big tasks to accomplish -- big plans and big tasks to accomplish. one plane is already ready for use. >> a statue of lenin with remnants of battle at his feet. we are in one of the most damaged cities. before the war, 38,000 people lived here and worked in the mines and factories. half of them have meanwhile fled. some say the ukrainian army intentionally punished the city. others say the new russia fighters had holed up in residential areas drawing fire. not even the city's two
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hospitals were spared. the city is in the area dominated by the done cossacks. we are allowed to explore only in the company of a soldier who does not stray from our side. the commander and effect overrule or of the city distributes a bit of red. his soldiers have set up soup kitchens. for many people here, it's all that stands between them and starvation. the cossacks are upset that the rebels do not allow russian humanitarian convoys to get through here. >> i have not received my pension for six months, so i'm dependent on the soup kitchen. i have to drag myself here, no matter what the weather is. the food is good. >> the soldiers want her not to mention that a ukrainian oligarchs also since help. the elderly woman apologizes to them. this era is a favorite among the fighters.
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untrue pushkin pet sit tenderly. we meet him in a neighboring city. he's the deputy commander of the regiment and responsible for its weapons and internal security. he speaks russian with no ukrainian accent. he freely admits he was not born here but says his grandfather drove the not sees out of this land in world war ii. >> this country is priceless to me. that's why i'm here with weapons in my hand. we will not be able to build a country here until we have liberated all of new russia. >> as long as armed conflict continues on the ground, everyone else has to hide underground -- grandmothers, single mothers, and children all housed in a bunker. the air is thick with fumes from coal stoves.
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valentina lost her apartment a month ago when a rocket hit her building. >> the hatred here -- it is only the politicians who fan it. only they could do that. we have always lived in peace with each other here. >> russians and ukrainians, even together in a single apartment. we never used to have this hatred. >> they are prisoners of this war -- exhausted, ignored, forgotten. >> finally to poland. next week sees the 70th anniversary of the liberation of auschwitz, arguably the world's most infamous nazi concentration camp. more than one million people were killed there, mostly jews. today, it's the site of an impressive complex of museums and memorials to remind the world of the holocaust. a nearby town is less keen to be defined only by the crimes of the nazis.
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>> this band is known as alternative curve, cheerful, easy-going, a bit insolent. they are happy going. one of their songs is very sad and serious, though, despite the lighthearted images. they sing, "my town, my town, you are injured, crippled, your eyes are sad. my town, my town, when will you change?" ♪ >> we want to show that it's a very normal town where normal people live and work. it's not only about the camp. it's about everything else around.
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>> he also likes his hometown, the marketplace, the old houses, the courtyards, even if many buildings are dilapidated. he's also interested in the jewish history. >> it was once described by inhabitants as jerusalem. >> it was a place where jewish people felt at home. he has a small -- and has a small private museum with items he has collected from the town, such as bottles from the liquor factory. before the war, more than half the population was jewish, something that many people now do not know. >> the town is it hundred years
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old, but its history and traditions have been forgotten, overshadowed by the concentration camp the germans built here. we no longer want to live under the shadow of auschwitz. we know the history is important for everyone. >> this cafe is located in the house where the men said to be the last june to have lived here lives. young people say it is hard to live in a small town, but especially in this one. >> strangely enough, people think the camp was built first and then the town, but it's the exact opposite. people have no idea. >> this is where the factory used to stand. he says investors are put off by the town's reputation. urban planners and architects have an tasked with developing ideas for the town, which at the
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moment is a cross between a town with working people and a memorial for those who were murdered in auschwitz. some of the projects propose are a part of reconciliation, a town of these, or interconnecting bridges. >> it should all grow together, and there should be unity. >> he was a prisoner in auschwitz and is not interested in the future of the town. he has made it his life's work to talk about what happened in the concentration camp. >> the young residents here should know what happened in that town, and they should tell other people and say, "come to auschwitz.
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learn from all the evil that went on there." >> in the meantime, they continue to practice. they are releasing a new cd, and this one is not about the town's crippled nature but sounds endemic and optimistic. -- sounds dynamic and optimistic. >> a difficult history for the region but also one that should not be forgotten, clearly. that's all for today. thanks very much for watching. to get in touch with any comments, and look forward to seeing you next week, same time, same place. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
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steves: i'm meeting my florentine friend tommaso at i fratellini, a venerable hole in the wall much loved among locals for its tasty sandwiches and wine sold by the glass. -grazie. -tommaso: thank you. and when you're done, you leave it on the rack. steves: boy, it's intense in the city. tommaso: yes, it is. well, if you want to leave the tourists, let's cross the river, and let's go to where the real florentines live and work. -steves: what's that? -tommaso: the oltrarno area. steves: there's much more to this town than tourism,
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as you'll quickly find in the characteristic back lanes of the oltrarno district. artisans busy at work offer a rare opportunity to see traditional craftsmanship in action. you're welcome to just drop in to little shops, but, remember, it's polite to greet the proprietor. your key phrase is, "can i take a look?" -posso guardare? -man: certo. steves: grazie. here in this great city of art, there's no shortage of treasures in need of a little tlc. this is beautiful. how old is this panting? woman: this is a 17th-century painting. steves: from florence? woman: we don't know. -maybe the area is genova. -steves: genova. each shop addresses a need with passion and expertise. fine instruments deserve the finest care. grand palaces sparkle with gold leaf, thanks to the delicate and exacting skills of craftspeople like this. a satisfying way to wrap up an oltrarno experience
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is to enjoy a florentine steakhouse, which any italian meat lover knows means chianina beef. the quality is proudly on display. steaks are sold by weight and generally shared. the standard serving is about a kilo for two, meaning about a pound per person. so, both of those for four people? woman: yes. steves: the preparation is simple and well established. good luck if you want it well done. man: i am hungry, yeah. oh, look at this. ah! steves: oh, beautiful. [ laughs ] man: wow. steves: chianina beef. -woman: white beans. -steves: okay. perfect. man: and that one. steves: so, the meat is called chianina. tommaso: that's its name, because it comes from the chianti. steves: oh, from chianti. okay. and tell me about this concept of the good marriage of the food, you know? tommaso: well, when you have the chianina meat, you want to have some chianti wine, and they go together well. they marry together.
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we say, "si sposano bene." steves: si sposano bene. a good marriage. in other words, the wine is from tuscany, -and the meat is from tuscany. -tommaso: exactly. you don't want to have a wine from somewhere else. that's it.
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hello, and welcome to nhk "newsline." it's tuesday, february 3rd. i'm katherine kobayashi in tokyo. bombers have attacked an election rally in nigeria. one person was killed and 18 others wounded. they believe members of the boko haram military group are responsible. the bomb went off in the town of gombe. the president left the rally minutes before. is he running for re-election in the vote scheduled for february 14th. they have compared

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